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Battle of Little Big Horn, Sioux War, 1876  

Custer's force was defeated at Little Big Horn, June 25–26, 1876
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Professional Papers and Journal Articles

  • Battle of Little Bighorn's presentation of the Battle of Little Bighorn.
  • "Clausewitz, Complexity, and Custer: An Analysis of Decision Making in a Nonlinear System."
    Leonard, Steven M. “Clausewitz, Complexity, and Custer: An Analysis of Decision Making in a Nonlinear System.” Monographic report, Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, KS, January 2001.
  • Custer and Cognition
    Journal article by Gompert, David C. ; Kugler, Richard L. Rather, it uses a new explanatory model of cognition in combat to explore what Custer's case suggests about decisionmaking in today's era of networked warfare. How does this flamboyant 19th-century cavalry officer relate to information-age military decisionmaking?
  • Custer in Cyberspace
    Defense Horizons. Custer in Cyberspace. February 2006, Number 51. By Gompert, David C. ; Kugler, Richard L.
  • Custer, Little Big Horn and History.
    Kraft, Louis. "CUSTER, THE LITTLE BIGHORN & HISTORY." American History 41, no. 2 (June 2006): 46-78. Military & Government Collection, EBSCOhost (accessed March 10, 2015).
  • General Custer and Little Big Horn Reconsidered --Again
    Potts, James B. "General Custer and Little Big Horn Reconsidered --Again." The Journal of Military History 58, no. 2 (April 1994): 305-314.
    Paper copy.
  • The Military Decision Making Process and the Battle of the Little Bighorn
    by Neumann, Jonathan T. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the mission assigned to Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong and his 7th Cavalry Regiment at the Little Bighorn, and to develop courses of ACION based on the information available to him at that time. The paper also provides the reader with a snapshot of Custer's professional development through his military education at West Point, and through his on the job experience in both the American Civil War, and Western Frontier. The link between his training and experience, and how he prosecuted campaigns against indians is discussed.
  • More Than Numbers: Native American Actions at the Battle of the Little Bighorn
    By Vickers, Bradley C. The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors, other than sheer numerical superiority, led to the Indian victory at the Little Bighorn on 25 June 1876, and demonstrate that the Sioux and Cheyenne warriors outperformed the 7th Cavalry in all war-fighting functions during the battle.
  • Operational Art in the Sioux War of 1876
    By Shufelt, Jr, James W. This monograph discusses the role of operational art in the Sioux War of 1876, the U.S. Army's largest campaign between the Civil War and the Spanish- American War.
  • "Revisiting the Battle of the Little Big Horn."
    Burns, Matthew J. “Revisiting the Battle of the Little Big Horn.” Master’s Thesis, Naval Post-Graduate School, Monterey, CA, 2000.
  • Sitting Bull
    Utley, Robert M. "Sitting Bull." MHQ 5: 4 (Summer 1993): 48-59. Paper copy.
  • "Sitting Bull: Great Commander and Strategist—or Savage? A View through the Clausewitzan Prism."
    Lavine, Michael J. “Sitting Bull: Great Commander and Strategist—or Savage? A View through the Clausewitzan Prism.” Lavine, Michael J. “Sitting Bull: Great Commander and Strategist—or Savage? A View through the Clausewitzan Prism.” Faculty Seminar, National Defense University, National War College, 1996. Faculty Seminar, National Defense University, National War College, 1996.
  • Studies in battle command [electronic resource] / by the faculty, Combat Studies Institute.
    Intuitive Vision Versus Practical Realities: Custer at the Battle of Little Big Horn -- Custer's Vision.
  • Ten Myths of the Little Bighorn
    By Gregory Michno. Originally published by Wild West magazine. Published Online: February 20, 2009, The
  • Teutoburg Forest, Little Bighorn, and Maiwand: Why Superior Military Forces Sometimes Fail
    By Grissom, Michael T. Chapter 3 investigates Custer and the Battle of the Little Bighorn. What was the standard doctrine for the professional armies at the time of the defeat, and did the commanders stray from this doctrine?; How did the primitive armies negate the technological advantages of the opposing side (or did they)?;
  • Understanding the "Victory Disease", From the Little Bighorn, To Mogadishu, to the Future
    by Karcher, Timothy M. Combat Studies Institute.
    The symptoms of the Victory Disease are arrogance, complacency, and the habit of using established patterns to solve military problems. These symptoms are evident in many military failures. The Victory Disease is best analyzed through the study of historical examples, easily highlighting the symptoms of the Victory Disease. This monograph uses the 1876 Battle of the Little Bighorn and the 1993 actions of Task Force Ranger in Mogadishu, Somalia, to highlight the symptoms and effect of the Victory Disease.
  • The U.S. Army's Sioux Campaign of 1876: Identifying the Horse as the Center of Gravity of the Sioux
    By Hoyt, Mark V. If the Army had a complete understanding of the Sioux they would have realized that the hub of all power or center of gravity of the Sioux was the horse, which every major aspect of Sioux life was augmented and dependent upon. The first three expeditions of the Sioux Campaign of 1876 demonstrate that: senior Army commanders planned their campaigns, expeditions, and organizations around their knowledge of Sioux mobility, the primary source of power for the Sioux warrior was mobility gained from the horse, Army forces could not bring their advantage in firepower to bear on Sioux warriors.

Books -- Print and Ebooks and Audiobooks

See Librarian for access options for Ebrary and EBSCOhost SSI Collections.

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A History of War in 100 Battles - Richard Overy
Call Number: 355.0209 Overy 2014
ISBN: 9780199390717
Publication Date: 2014-11-03
Their very names--Gettysburg, Waterloo, Stalingrad--evoke images of great triumph and equally great suffering, moments when history seemed to hang in the balance. Considered in relation to each other, such battles--and others of less immediate renown--offer insight into the changing nature of armed combat, advances in technology, shifts in strategy and thought, as well as altered geopolitical landscapes. The most significant military engagements in history define the very nature of war ... Rather than focusing on the question of victory or defeat, Overy examines what an engagement can tell us on a larger level about the history of warfare itself. New weapons and tactics can have a sudden impact on the outcome of a battle--but so too can leadership, or the effects of a clever deception, or raw courage. Overy offers a deft and visually captivating look at the engagements that have shaped the course of human history" --

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Archaeological Perspectives on the Battle of Little Bighorn - Douglas D. Scott; Richard A. Fox; Melissa A. Connor; Dick Harmon
Call Number: 973.82 A669
ISBN: 0806121793
Publication Date: 1989-05-01

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The Battle of the Little Bighorn - Mari Sandoz; Mari Sandoz
Call Number: 973.82 S218
ISBN: 9780803291003
Publication Date: 1966

Mari Sandoz's account of the battle in which General George Armstrong Custer staked his life—and lost—reveals on every page the author's intimate knowledge of her subject. The character of the Sioux, the personality of Custer, the mixed emotions of Custer's men, the Plains landscape—all emerge with such clarity that the reader is transported in time to that spring of 1876, when the Army of the Plains began its fateful march toward the Yellowstone. The background of the tragedy is here: the history of bad blood and broken treaties between the Sioux Nation and the United States, the underlying reason for Custer's expedition and for the convocation of Indians on the Little Bighorn that particular year. The author's analysis of Custer's motives and political ambitions sheds new light on an old mystery and will be hotly disputed by the general's admirers.

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Battles That Changed American History - Spencer C. Tucker
Call Number: ONLINE EBRARY SSI Collection
ISBN: 9781440828614
Publication Date: Jan 2014
See Chapter on Little Big Horn

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The Class of 1861: Custer, Ames, and their classmates after West Point - Ralph Kirshner; George Plimpton (Foreword by)
Call Number: 355 K61
ISBN: 0809320665
Publication Date: 1999-12-15
"Ralph Kirshner has provided a richly illustrated forum to enable the West Point class of 1861 to write its own autobiography. Through letters, journals, and published accounts, George Armstrong Custer, Adelbert Ames, and their classmates tell in their own words of their Civil War battles and varied careers after the war."--Jacket

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Curse not his curls - ROBERT J. EGE
Call Number: 973.8 E29
Publication Date: (FORT COLLINS, COL.) THE OLD ARMY PRESS (1974)

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Custer and the Little Big Horn: A Psychobiographical Inquiry - Charles K. Hofling
Call Number: 973.82 H712
ISBN: 0814318142
Publication Date: 1989-10-01
Few American battles have been the object of as much discussion and popular fascination as the Battle of the Little Big Horn. Yet after more than a century, a great number of questions remain unanswered. Many are destined to remain so. No white man survived to tell the tale, Indian accounts are inconsistent, and contemporary reports are distorted by political considerations.

Charles K. Hofling, however, provides fresh insight to the events of June 1876 by exploring them from a unique perspective. Concluding that discussions of military tactics and strategy are not sufficient in themselves to explain Little Big Horn, Hofling turns his attention to the psychological context in which Custer operated in order to understand the decisions which produced his final disaster. Examining Custer's personal and military life, Hofling isolates those episodes of psychological significance which suggest personality traits which would account for Custer's behavior before and during the battle.

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Custer's Fall: the Indian Side of the Story. - MILLER, DAVID HUMPHREYS.
Call Number: 973.82 Mil
Publication Date: NEW YORK, DUELL, SLOAN AND PEARCE (1957

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The Day the World Ended at Little Bighorn - Joseph M. Marshall
Call Number: 973.82 MAR AND Audio CD 973.82 MAR 2007
ISBN: 9780670038534
Publication Date: 2007-05-10
The 1876 Battle of the Little Bighorn has become known as the quintessential clash of cultures between the Lakota and white settlers. The men who led the battle - Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull, and Colonel George A. Custer - have become legends. [In this volume, the author] reveals the nuanced complexities that led up to and followed the battle. Until now, this account has been available only within the Lakota oral tradition. The[book] is required reading for anyone enthralled by the tale of the tragic fight that changed the scope of both America and the American landscape.-Dust jacket.

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Fields of Battle: The Wars for North America. - John Keegan
Call Number: 355 K26
ISBN: 067942413X
Publication Date: 1996-05-07
See chapter, Forts on the Plains,k Custer's Last Stand, pp. 295f.

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Frontier Regulars : The United States Army and the Indian, 1866-1891 - Robert Marshall Utley
Call Number: 973.8 Utl
ISBN: 0803295510
Publication Date: 1984-12-01
See chapter: Sitting Bull, 1870-76

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Killing Custer: the Battle of the Little Bighorn and the fate of the Plains Indians - James Welch; Paul Stekler
Call Number: 973.82 W439
ISBN: 0140251766
Publication Date: 1995-11-01
General George Custer's 1876 attack on a huge encampment of Plains Indians has gone down as the most disastrous defeat in American history. Much less understood is how disastrous it was for the "victors, " the Sioux and Cheyenne under the leadership of Sitting Bull: within fifteen years all Native Americans were confined to reservations, their culture in ruins. James Welch poignantly resurrects their side of the story from beneath a mountain of myth and misinterpretation, relating in masterful prose the pride and desperation of a people stripped of treaty rights and hounded from ancestral hunting grounds into wretched reservations. Through this critical missing piece that tells the Indian side of the story, " Killing Custer" rethinks the meaning of the Little Bighorn for a multicultural society.

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The Last Days of George Armstrong Custer - Thom Hatch
Call Number: 973.82 Hatch 2015
ISBN: 1250051029
Publication Date: 2015-02-03
In this thrilling narrative history of George Armstrong Custer's death at the Little Bighorn, award-winning historian Thom Hatch puts to rest the questions and conspiracies that have made Custer's last stand one of the most misunderstood events in American history. While numerous historians have investigated the battle, what happened on those plains hundreds of miles from even a whisper of civilization has been obscured by intrigue and deception starting with the very first shots fired. Custer's death and the defeat of the 7th Calvary by the Sioux was a shock to a nation that had come to believe that its westward expansion was a matter of destiny. While the first reports defended Custer, many have come to judge him by this single event, leveling claims of racism, disobedience, and incompetence. These false claims unjustly color Custer's otherwise extraordinarily life and fall far short of encompassing his service to his country. By reexamining the facts and putting Custer within the context of his time and his career as a soldier, Hatch's The Last Days of George Armstrong Custer reveals the untold and controversial truth of what really happened in the valley of the Little Bighorn, making it the definitive history of Custer's last stand. This history of charging cavalry, desperate defenses, and malicious intrigue finally sets the record straight for one of history's most dynamic and misunderstood figures.

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Last in Their Class: Custer, Pickett and the Goats of West Point - James Robbins
Call Number: ONLINE EBSCOhost SSI Collection
ISBN: 9781594033841
Publication Date: 2006-03-09
Today's Goat, the West Point cadet finishing at the bottom of his class, is a temporary celebrity among his classmates. But in the 19th century, he was something of a cult figure. Custer's contemporaries at the Academy believed that the same spirit of adventure that led him to carouse at local taverns motivated his dramatic cavalry attacks in the Civil War and afterwards. And the same willingness to accept punishment from Academy authorities also sent George Pickett into the teeth of the Union guns at Gettsyburg. The story James S. Robbins tells goes from the beginnings of West Point through the carnage of the Civil War to the grassy bluffs over the Little Big Horn. The Goats he profiles tell us much about the soul of the American solider, his daring, imagination and desire to prove himself against high odds.

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The Last Stand: Custer, Sitting Bull, and the Battle of the Little Bighorn - Nathaniel Philbrick
Call Number: 973.82 P545
ISBN: 9780670021727
Publication Date: 2010-05-04
The Last Stand is Philbrick's monumental reappraisal of the epochal clash at the Little Bighorn in 1876 that gave birth to the legend of Custer's Last Stand

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Leaders and Battles: the art of military leadership - William J. Wood
Call Number: 355.33041 W881
ISBN: 030753703X
Publication Date: 1990-06-01
George Custer at Little Big Horn, 1876: Judgment

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Legend into History - Charles Kuhlman
Call Number: 970.1 K96 1977
ISBN: 0883420562
Publication Date: 1977-12-01

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Little Bighorn Remembered: the untold Indian story of Custer's last stand - Herman J. Viola
Call Number: Oversize 973.82 V795L
ISBN: 0812932560
Publication Date: 1999-10-11
"On the morning of June 25, 1876, soldiers of the elite U.S. Seventh Cavalry led by Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer attacked a large Indian encampment on the banks of the Little Bighorn River. By day's end, Custer and more than two hundred of his men lay dead. It was a shocking defeat - or magnificent victory, depending on your point of view - and more than a century later it is still the object of controversy, debate, and fascination."--Jacket.
"What really happened on that fateful day? Now, thanks to the work of Herman J. Viola, Curator Emeritus of the Smithsonian Institution, we are much closer to answering that question. Dr. Viola, a leader in the preservation of Native American culture and history, has collected here dozens of dramatic, never-before-published accounts by Indians who participated in the battle - accounts that have been handed down to the present day, often secretly and accompanied by oaths of silence, from one generation to the next.

These remarkable eyewitness recollections provide a direct link to that day's events; together they constitute an unprecedented oral history of the battle from the Native American point of view and the most comprehensive eyewitness description of Little Bighorn we have ever had."--Jacket.

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North American Indian Wars - Richard Dillon
Call Number: 973 Dillon 1983
ISBN: 0871966417
Publication Date: 1920-01-01
Chronicles the engagements, including Little Big Horn and the Battle of Wounded Knee that ended the Indian Wars.

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Showdown at Little Big Horn - Dee Alexander Brown
Call Number: 973.82 Brown 1964
ISBN: 0803262183
Publication Date: 2004-03-01
Diaries, letters, and photographs combine to give an account of the battle between General George Armstrong Custer's 7th Calvary and the Indians at Little Big Horn.

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Soldiers Falling into Camp: the battles at the Rosebud and the Little Big Horn - Robert Kammer; Joe Marshall; Freddie Lefthand
Call Number: 813.54 Kammen 1992
ISBN: 1879915049
Publication Date: 1992-06-01
The battles at the Rosebud and the Little Big Horn.

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Stricken Field: the Little Bighorn Battlefield since 1876 - Jerome A. Greene; Paul L. Hedren (Foreword by)
Call Number: 973.82 Greene 2008
ISBN: 9780806137919
Publication Date: 2008-04-01
In Stricken Field, one of America's foremost military historians offers the first comprehensive history of the site and its administration in more than half a century. Jerome A. Greene has produced a compelling account of one of the West's most hallowed and controversial attractions, beginning with the battle itself and ending with the establishment of an American Indian memorial early in the twenty-first century. Chronicling successive efforts of the War Department and the National Park Service to oversee the site, Greene describes the principal issues that have confounded its managers, from battle observances and memorials to ongoing maintenance, visitor access, and public use. --from publisher description.

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Thieves' Road: the Black Hills betrayal and Custer's path to Little Bighorn - Terry Mort
Call Number: 978.39 Mort
ISBN: 1616149604
Publication Date: 2015-02-10
In the summer of 1874, Brevet Major General George Armstrong Custer led an expedition of some 1000 troops and more than one hundred wagons into the Black Hills of South Dakota. This narrative history tells the little-known story of this exploratory mission and reveals how it set the stage for the climactic Battle of the Little Bighorn two years later. What is the significance of this obscure foray into the Black Hills? The short answer, as the author explains, is that Custer found gold. This discovery in the context of the worst economic depression the country had yet experienced spurred a gold rush that brought hordes of white prospectors to the Sioux's sacred grounds. The result was the trampling of an 1868 treaty that had granted the Black Hills to the Sioux and their inevitable retaliation against the white invasion. Mort brings the era of the Grant administration to life, with its "peace policy" of settling the Indians on reservations, corrupt federal Indian Bureau, Gilded Age excesses, the building of the western railroads, the white settlements that followed the tracks, the Crash of 1873, mining ventures, and the clash of white and Indian cultures with diametrically opposed values.

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They Died with Custer: soldiers' bones from the Battle of the Little Bighorn - Douglas D. Scott; P. Willey; Melissa A. Connor
Call Number: 973.82 S425
ISBN: 0806130954
Publication Date: 1999-02-15
Relying on historical sources, archaeological evidence, skeletal remains, and many illustrations, the authors investigate the lives of the cavalrymen who rode and died with General Custer.

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Where Custer Fell: photographs of the Little Bighorn Battlefield then and now - James S. Brust; Brian C. Pohanka; Sandy Barnard
Call Number: ersize 973.82 Brust 2005
ISBN: 0806136863
Publication Date: 2005-10-01
The Battle of the Little Bighorn has long held a preeminent position among the chronicles of the mythic West. None of the men who rode with Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer to his "Last Stand" survived to tell the tale, but this photography book provides a view of the battlefield as it must have existed in 1876."


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