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Carolina Campaign, 1 January - 26 April 1865.   Tags: burning of columbia. carolina campaign. staff ride. civil war. battle of river's bridge.  

This guide provides resources for the study of General Sherman's campaign through the Carolinas, including the burning of Columbia, SC and the Battle of River's Bridge, SC, February 2-4, 1865.
Last Updated: Dec 5, 2016 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates
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Links to Professional Papers, Army publications and online primary source material

A Diary From Dixie. Electronic Edition. Mary Boykin Miller Chesnut, 1823-1886. © This work is the property of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. It may be used freely by individuals for research, teaching and personal use as long as this statement of availability is included in the text. From the D. Appleton and Company 1905 edition. Hosted by Documenting the American South digital publishing initiative.

Emma Florence LeConte. Diary, 1864-1865. Transcript of the manuscript, UNC-Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection. Hosted by Documenting the American South digital publishing initiative.

Personnel Replacement System in the United States Army. Center for Military History.

"Sherman's 1864-65 Campaigns: Strategic Analysis and Lessons for Today." DTIC.

"The Role of Union Logistics in the Carolina Campaign of 1865." DTIC.

 The Staff Ride. Center for Military History.:

The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. Cornell University Making of American collection. 


Carolina Campaign Staff Ride Books and supplemental sources

See Librarian for access options for EBSCOhost SSI Collections


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The Carolina campaign: The Burning of Columbia, 1 Jan - 20 Feb 1865. 2nd edition. - Bower, Stephen E.
Call Number: 973.738 C2926
Publication Date: Fort Jackson, SC: U. S. Army Soldier Support Institute, 2010; 2016.
"Staff Ride Study Manual; Captains' Career Course"

online study version available on SharePoint.

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Sherman and the Burning of Columbia - Marion B. Lucas; Bell I. Wiley (Foreword by)
Call Number: 973.7 L933 & EBSCOhost SSI Collection
ISBN: 1570033587
Publication Date: 2000-04-01
Multiple copies available in print. Site License (SSI) for the ebook, EBSCOhost.

This volume tackles one of the most debated issues of the American Civil War: who burned South Carolina's capital city on February 17, 1865? The author traces the damage not to a single blaze but to a series of fire, preceded by a series of military and civilian blunders.

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Sherman's March Through the Carolinas - John G. Barrett
Call Number: 973.738 B274
ISBN: 0807845663
Publication Date: 1996-02-12
Multiple copies available at the SSI Library.

Documents General William Tecumseh Sherman's three month march through North and South Carolina during the Civil War and the effect upon the local populations.

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The Civil War in the Carolinas - Dan L. Morrill; Amanda Mills (Editor); Teddy H. Pound (Contribution by); Stephen Oltmann (Contribution by)
Call Number: 975.603 M874
ISBN: 1877853569
Publication Date: 2002-09-01
The saga of Fort Sumter: the beginning -- The saga of Fort Sumter: the tension builds -- Abraham lincoln takes control -- The culmination of the crisis -- North Carolina secedes -- Fort Hatteras and Fort Clark -- Port Royal Sound -- the Yankees occupy Hilton Head and Beaufort -- Secessionville -- Roanoke Island -- New Bern and Fort Macon -- The Emancipation Proclamation and the Massachusetts 54th -- The Union Navy attacks Charleston -- Fort Wagner and Fort Sumter -- Engagements in the North Carolina rivers -- Fort Fisher -- Submarines and Sherman -- The burning of Columbia, the Battle of Bentonville, and surrrender.

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The March to the Sea and Beyond: Sherman's troops in the Savannah and Carolinas Campaigns - Joseph T. Glatthaar
Call Number: 973.737 G549
ISBN: 0807120286
Publication Date: 1995-11-01
Multiple copies are available at the SSI library

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Memoirs of General W. T. Sherman - William Tecumseh Sherman; Charles Royster (Editor)
Call Number: 973.7092 A3 1990
ISBN: 0940450658
Publication Date: 1990-10-01

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A Diary from Dixie: the Civil War's most celebrated journal, written 1860-1865 by the wife of James Chesnut, Jr., an aide to President Jefferson Davis and a brigadier-general in the Confederate Army - Mary Chestnut
Call Number: 973.717 Chesnut 1997
ISBN: 0517182661
Publication Date: 1997-03-25
1860: Charleston (Dec) -- 1861: Montgomery (Feb) -- Charleston (Mar) -- Camden (Apr) -- Montgomery (Apr/May) -- Charleston (May) -- Richmond (June) -- Fauquier, White Sulphur Springs (Jul) -- Richmond (Aug) -- 1862: Columbia (Feb-Jul) -- Flat Rock (Aug) -- 1863: Portland, AL (Jul) -- Richmond (Aug) -- Camden (Sep) -- Richmond (Nov -- Apr) -- 1864: Camden (May/Jun) -- Columbia (Jul-Jan) -- 1865: Lincolnton, NC (Feb) -- Chester, SC (Mar-Apr -- Camden (May-Aug).

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A Narrative of Military Service - William B. Hazen; Richard A. Baumgartner (Introduction by)
Call Number: 973.731 H429
ISBN: 096288667x
Publication Date: 1993-05-01

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Battle Chronicles of the Civil War - James M. McPherson (Editor); Richard Gottlieb (Editor)
Call Number: REF 973.73 B336 vol. 5
ISBN: 0029206618
Publication Date: 1989-12-01

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Battle Cry of Freedom - James M. McPherson
Call Number: 973.73 M172
ISBN: 0195038630
Publication Date: 1988-02-25
Chapter 27: "South Carolina must be destroyed."

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Beauregard, the great Creole - Hamilton Basso
Call Number: 923.573 Basso
Publication Date: 1933

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Civil War Source Book - Philip R. N. Katcher
Call Number: 973.7 Katcher
ISBN: 0816028230
Publication Date: 1992-09-01

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Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: a political, social, and military history - David S. Heidler (Editor); Jeanne T. Heidler (Editor); David J. Coles (Editor); Gary W. Gallagher (Editor); James M. McPherson; Mark E. Neeley (Editor)
Call Number: REF 973.7 E56
ISBN: 1576070662
Publication Date: 2000-12-13

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Facing Sherman in South Carolina: march through the swamps - Christopher G. Crabb
Call Number: 975.703 Crabb 2010
ISBN: 1609490150
Publication Date: 2010-12-10
Will they invade us? Where is their army? -- You'd better get out; we are the Fifteenth Corps -- There goes your old gospel shop -- They are South Carolinians, not Americans -- Here began a carnival of destruction -- Men gasping in death -- Yanks, you better leave this country -- Build them strong, Catterson -- Those fellows are trying to stop us -- Nothing in South Carolina was held sacred -- A hasty visit to Mr. Simms -- The plantations now looked desolate -- The most complete rout I have ever witnessed -- Only those who were there could tell -- As if a knife was cutting the flesh -- The men of this army surprise me every day -- A conqueror through the streets of Columbia -- Forests filled with flames and pitch-black smoke -- The language would create consternation -- Conclusion: The army marched triumphantly into humiliated Columbia.

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Fightin' Joe Wheeler - John P. Dyer
Call Number: 923.573 Dyer
Publication Date: 1941

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Frank Blair - William E. Parrish
Call Number: 973.5092 Parrish
ISBN: 0826211569
Publication Date: 1998-03-17
Ch. 9 Marching through Georgia and the Carolinas

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From Western Deserts to Carolina Swamps: A Civil War Soldier's Journals and Letters Home - John P. Wilson (Editor)
Call Number: ONLINE EBSCOhost SSI Collection
ISBN: 0826351425
Publication Date: 2012-05-15
Includes topics: Sherman's March to the Sea--Sources;
Sherman's March through the Carolinas--Sources;
Atlanta Campaign, 1864--Sources.

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General William J. Hardee: Old Reliable - Nathaniel Hughes
Call Number: 973.730924 Hughes
Publication Date: 1965

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Generals in Blue - Ezra J. Warner
Call Number: 973.741 Warner
ISBN: 0807108227
Publication Date: 1964-06-01

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Generals in Gray - Ezra J. Warner
Call Number: 973.742 Warner
ISBN: 0807108235
Publication Date: 1959-06-01
Mr. Warner has gathered all the vital statistics of each of the 425 general officers who served the Confederate Army duirng the four years of war: his full name, where and when he was born, where educated, how occupied before the war, when commissioned in the Confederate forces, his war record, when and where paroled, his post-war activities, when and where he died and where he was buried.

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Gentleman and Soldier: A biography of Wade Hampton III - Edward G. Longacre
Call Number: 973.73092 Longacre 2003
ISBN: 1558539646
Publication Date: 2003-07-16
Gentleman and Soldier is the first biography in more than 50 years of Wade Hampton III, a Confederate general whose remarkable life provides sweeping insight into the entire history of the Civil War in teh South. Hampton was a leading citizen of South Carolina before the War, the highest ranking cavalry leader during the War, fought in a remarkable number of battles from Gettysburg to Bentonville, and was South Carolina governor and U.S. Senator after the War. When he left the Army of Northern Virginia to defend South Carolina against William T. Sherman, Lee said that Hampton's departure made the surrender at Appomattox inevitable.

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Joseph E. Johnston: a civil war biography - Craig L. Symonds
Call Number: 973.73092 Symonds
ISBN: 039303058x
Publication Date: 1992-03-01
Genergy Johnston was in command of Confederate forces at the South's first, Manassas in July 1861, and at last, Bentonville in April 1865.

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Kill-Cavalry: the life of Union General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick - Samuel J. Martin
Call Number: 973.741092 M383
ISBN: 081170887X
Publication Date: 2000-01-01
botched raid on Richmond in 1864 finally caused Gen. George Meade to relieve him of command. But it seemed that at least one of his superiors saw his personal behavior as an asset. Gen. William T. Sherman, who made use of Kilpatrick's services as cavalry chief during his march to the sea, remarked, "I know Kilpatrick is one hell of a damned fool, but I want just that sort of man to command my cavalry." His ruthless performance in the closing months of the war earned him a promotion to major general.

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Marching with Sherman - Mark H. Dunkelman
Call Number: ONLINE EBSCOhost SSI Collection
ISBN: 0807143782
Publication Date: 2012-04-02
Includes topics: Sherman's March to the Sea and
Sherman's March through the Carolinas

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Mary Boykin Chesnut - Elisabeth Muhlenfeld; C. Vann Woodward (Foreword by)
Call Number: 975.7030924 Muhlenfeld
ISBN: 0807108529
Publication Date: 1981-05-01
Chesnut is today known chiefly for her firsthand account of life in the Confederate States of America, and her drawing room was a social center for many of the most prominent political and military figures in the Confederacy. Muhlenfeld traces her life in South Carolina as the daughter of a governor and United States senator, through her marriage to a wealthy South Carolina planter, and into the later years of her life, when Chesnut did her most serious writing and her major works.

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Numbers and Losses in the Civil War, 1861-1865 - Thomas Leonard Livermore
Call Number: 973.74 Livermore
This volume is a reprint of the 1900 edition.

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Photographic Views of Sherman's Campaign - George N. Barnard
Call Number: 973.737 Barnard 1977
ISBN: 0486234452
Publication Date: 2009-10-22
The pictures provide us with the most detailed visual source we have on the actual settings and terrain of Sherman's campaign, in many cases recording the gridges and battlements and the extent of the destruction as seen soon after the fighting.

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Refugee Life in the Confederacy - Mary Elizabeth Massey; George C. Rable (Introduction by)
Call Number: 973.708691 M416
ISBN: 0807126888
Publication Date: 2001-05-01
"The Civil War spawned tens of thousands of southern refugees. Some fled from bombardment or rumor of invasion. Others were exiled by enemy commanders. Virtually none anticipated the extreme hardships they would encounter. Through diligent research in manuscripts and newspapers, Mary Elizabeth Massey brings vivid detail to all aspects of Southern refugee life. Thrilling tales of displaced people scrambling for trains or making river crossings recapture the poignancy of civilians trapped between advancing and retreating armies. Massey examines the psychological effects of the war on the homeless, the humor they found in their difficulties, their activities in adopted communitities, private and public aid, and legislation concerning them. The refugees created enormous problems for the Southern war effort as they crowded into the ever-contracting areas of the Confederacy, disabling wartime transportation and contributing to the congestion of cities to the point that it was difficult to feed and house them." -- from the back cover.

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Sherman's March: an eyeywitness history of the cruel campaign that helped end a crueler war [sound recording]/ Richard Wheeler - Richard Wheeler; Jeff Riggenbach (Read by)
Call Number: Audio CD 973.7 W5642
ISBN: 143325834X
Publication Date: 2008-12-01
General William Tecumseh Sherman has gone down in history as the man who said, "War is hell" and who waged it so fiercely as to leave a permanent scar on the Southern psyche. But the history books aren't always right. In Sherman's March, Civil War historian Richard Wheeler offers a new view of Sherman, as a man of compassion as well as conviction and as a military leader who was ahead of his time in understanding that the destruction of supplies and property--the means to wage war--was as important as meeting and destroying enemy armies.

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Sherman. - Steven E. Woodworth; Wesley K. Clark (Contribution by, Foreword by)
Call Number: 355.0092 W9126 print and Audio CD 355.0092 W9125.
ISBN: 9780230620629
Publication Date: 2010-01-05
Great General Series. "Lessons in Leadership."

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Sherman: fighting prophet - Lloyd Lewis
Call Number: 973.7092 S55 L48 1994
ISBN: 0831732873
Publication Date: 1994-03-01

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South Carolina Civilians in Sherman's Path - Karen Stokes
Call Number: 973.7378 Stokes 2012
ISBN: 9781609497040
Publication Date: 2012-06-19
During the fateful winter of 1865, General William T. Sherman led an army of over sixty thousand troops on a destructive march through the Palmetto States. Hundreds of the affected residents recorded their harrowing experiences in letters, diaries, memoirs and newspaper accounts, much of which is corroborated by the testimony of Sherman's officers and soldiers.

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Sword and Olive Branch - John A. Carpenter; Paul Cimbala (Introduction by)
Call Number: 973.7092 C295
ISBN: 0823219879
Publication Date: 1999-01-01
see chapter: The End of the War

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Terrible Innocence: General Sherman at War - Mark Coburn
Call Number: 973.7092 Coburn
ISBN: 0781801567
Publication Date: 1993-06-01
The focus is on Sherman the man - his character and personality. Though the book overviews Sherman's entire life, Coburn focuses on one critical year - May 1864 to May 1865. During that tumultuous year, Sherman fought his way down to Atlanta (keeping his huge army supplied with a single-track railroad), cut off and captured the city, chased John Bell Hood's Confederate army around northern Georgia, and led his famous March to the Sea. Then, after a month-long Christmas breather in Savannah, Sherman launched his longest, most impressive march - the little-known winter trek that took his army 425 miles through the Carolinas to help end the war.

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The Destructive War - Charles Royster
Call Number: 973.7 R892
ISBN: 0679738789
Publication Date: 1993-01-11
In this vivid book, Royster looks at William Tecumseh Sherman and Stonewall Jackson, the men who came to embody the apocalyptic passions of North and South, and re-creates their characters, their strategies and the feelings they inspired in their countrymen.

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The Hard Hand of War - Mark Grimsley
Call Number: 973.7 G866
ISBN: 0521462576
Publication Date: 1995-11-26
The Hard Hand of War explores the Union army's policy of destructive attacks on Southern property and civilian morale - how it evolved, what it was like in practice. From an initial policy of deliberate restraint, extending even to the active protection of Southerners' property and constitutional rights, Union armies gradually adopted measures that were expressly intended to demoralize Southern civilians and to ruin the Confederate economy. Yet the ultimate "hard war" policy was far from the indiscriminate fury of legend. Union policymakers promoted a program of directed severity - and Professor Grimsley demonstrates how and why it worked.

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The personnel replacement system in the United States Army - Leonard L. Lerwill, lieutenant colonel, Infantry, United States Army
Call Number: 355.2 U58pr and online Center for Military History
Publication Date: Dept. of the Army, 1954.

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The White Tecumseh: A biography of William T. Sherman - Stanley P. Hirshson
Call Number: 355.0092 Hirshson
ISBN: 0471175781
Publication Date: 1997-04-09
General Sherman is one of the most complex and fascinating figures in the history of the U.S. military. His fierce campaigns of the Civil War, climaxed by the burning of Atlanta and his famous march to the sea, are the stuff of legend.

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This Republic of Suffering: death and the American Civil War - Drew Gilpin Faust
Call Number: 973.71 Faust
ISBN: 9780375703836
Publication Date: 2009-01-06
An illuminating study of the American struggle to comprehend the meaning and practicalities of death in the face of the unprecedented carnage of the Civil War. During the war, approximately 620,000 soldiers lost their lives. An equivalent proportion of today's population would be six million. This book explores the impact of this enormous death toll from every angle: material, political, intellectual, and spiritual. Historian Faust delineates the ways death changed not only individual lives but the life of the nation and its understanding of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship. She describes how survivors mourned and how a deeply religious culture struggled to reconcile the slaughter with its belief in a benevolent God, and reconceived its understanding of life after death.--From publisher description

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William Tecumseh Sherman : in the service of my country; a life. - James Lee McDonough
Call Number: 355.0092 McDon 2016
ISBN: 9780393241570
Publication Date: 2016-06-14
"A major new biography of one of America's most storied military figures. General Sherman's 1864 burning of Atlanta solidified his legacy as a ruthless leader. Yet Sherman proved far more complex than his legendary military tactics reveal. James Lee McDonough offers fresh insight into a man tormented by the fear that history would pass him by, who was plagued by personal debts, and who lived much of his life separated from his family. As a soldier, Sherman evolved from a spirited student at West Point into a general who steered the Civil War's most decisive campaigns, rendered here in graphic detail. Lamenting casualties, Sherman sought the war's swift end by devastating Southern resources in the Carolinas and on his famous March to the Sea. This meticulously researched biography explores Sherman's warm friendship with Ulysses S. Grant, his strained relationship with his wife, Ellen, and his unassuageable grief over the death of his young son, Willy. The result is a remarkable, comprehensive life of an American icon whose legacy resonates to this day." --Publisher description.


Bibliography for the Study of the Carolina Campaign - Print and Online Sources

Online catalog and electronic resources

SSI Library Catalog  

SSI Library Sharepoint site pages. Contact SSI Knowledge Manager for authentication to Sharepoint.

EBSCOhost SSI Collection: Ebooks; Audiobooks; Academic Search Complete available for SSI authorized patrons.

EBRARY SSI Collection: for SSI authorized patrons

Army Heritage & Education Center Digital Archive: Army historical images, bibliographies and historical military publications

Army Libraries Catalog and Online Resources :  MWR and Army consolidated library catalog, including research databases. Register at MWR libraries to access online resources.

Army Logistics University Library

Army Publishing Directorate:

Books 24x7:  Includes leadership and professional development titles. Army E-Learning access to ebooks and related content.

Center for Army Lessons Learned : Call Handbooks, Combat Studies Institute materials and Military Review journal articles.

Center for Military History: Unit History and Battle Analysis materials.

Combined Arms Research Library Digital Library

Doctrine Publications Search - CAC: Combined Arms Center

DTIC: Defense Technical Information Center Professional papers, battle analyses, research reports, index to military literature.

Jane's Sentinels, news and security reports via Intelink.

Joint Electronic Library (DTIC): Joint Publications; Doctrine; Lessons Learned; Joint Force Quarterly journal.

MCoE HQ Donovan Research Library -- Research library online resources include bibliographies, battle analysis material, digital collections.


Safari Ebooks:  Register through AKO My Library or OpenSource. Safari offers a Safari to Go app that works with Android, Apple iOS and Blackberry devices.

U.S. Army Chaplain School and Center Library

Warrior Reference Library: from the Combined Arms Center.


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